Geography of the Arctic Region In contrast to Antarctica, the Arctic Region includes the five states surrounding the Arctic Ocean—Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Nor-way, Russia and the United States—and the straits used for internation - al navigation to and from the Arctic … In fact, the Arctic is not even the coldest place in the Northern Hemisphere. The two longest mountain ranges are the Brooks Range which separates the arctic region from the interior and Alaska-Aleutian Range which extends westward along the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands, and northward about 200 miles from the Peninsula, then eastward to Canada. All places on earth have their own climates. practice of protecting a building and its interior from the effects of sunlight, precipitation, and wind. The region’s marine ecozones — the Arctic and the Arctic Archipelago, including Hudson and James bays — are as vast and complex as the terrestrial ecozones. A country can explore and exploit all resources within its. Alaska is the only U.S. state with access to the Arctic Circle, and Fairbanks, Alaska, is the closest major city (it's about 198 miles (158 km) away). floating chunk of frozen water less than 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide. The northern hemisphere experiences summer during the months of June, July, and August because it is tilted toward the sun and receives the most direct sunlight. From Greek Arktikos, it means ‘near the bear, Arctic, northern’. You cannot download interactives. a disagreement or fight, usually over ideas or procedures. Insects and insect larvae provide a, Primary consumers across the region range from tiny lemmings to enormous muskoxen. Because the Arctic ocean absorbs so much more solar radiation than the Antarctic ice sheet, the Arctic is much, much, much warmer than the Antarctic. people and culture native to northern Scandinavia. However, scientists disagree on how many biomes exist. Russia manufactures the most powerful icebreakers. Usually rivers enter another body of water at their mouths. part of a continent that extends underwater to the deep-ocean floor. deposit in the Earth of minerals containing valuable metal. Short, cool summers and long, cold winters help to maintain permafrost on the land. organism that can produce its own food and nutrients from chemicals in the atmosphere, usually through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. The 21st century has marked record lows in both the winter maximum and summer minimum extent of sea ice. The dominant landscape type in most of the Arctic Circle, tundra is known for its abundance of water, low rolling hills and soft, porous earth. The Arctic is mostly an ocean surrounded by land. People have debated since the 1970s about whether to develop this pristine area, but Congress has not given any approval to drill or mine there. environment where an organism lives throughout the year or for shorter periods of time. The … land covered by evergreen trees in cool, northern latitudes. degree of hotness or coldness measured by a thermometer with a numerical scale. unit made up of governments or groups in different countries, usually for a specific purpose. Learn More. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. Also known as petroleum or crude oil. The cryosphere contains the frozen parts of the planet. Inuit bands in Canada and Greenland, for example, Igloos were just one type of Inuit dwelling. Species of Arctic fox and Arctic hare, for example, are snowy white in winter but. community of living and nonliving things in the ocean. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. Sustainability Policy | Learn more about this vulnerable sphere with this collection of resources. business organizations concerned with economic decisions for a region of Alaska in which native Alaskans own all the stock. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. Elicit from students that it is the northernmost region of the Earth. While the Arctic region has … Make sure students understand their location in relation to the map. Radford University Department of Geographical Science; Biomes of the World, Tundra, Information on Landforms in Quebec, Canada, Geographical Highlights of the Weather & Climate in Europe, Privacy Notice/Your California Privacy Rights. This phenomenon, which occasionally appears south of the 66th parallel in winter, dominates the landscape of the Arctic Circle year-round, even during periods of perpetual twilight in the summer. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. The permafrost and short growing season – 10 weeks at the most – prevents the growth of any large vegetation. 533-564 (Geosystems, 3CE, pp. Most scientists define the Arctic as the area within the, The Arctic is almost entirely covered by water, much of it frozen. Permafrost is soil that stays frozen all year. Privacy Notice | permanently frozen layer of the Earth's surface. The mountains are located in the far northwest border. organism that eats dead or rotting biomass, such as animal flesh or plant material. Inversely, summer for the southern hemisphere takes place during the months of December, January, and February because that is when it receives the most direct sunlight. Even grass is an uncommon feature, as the rocky, wet ground is instead covered with lichens and low-lying brush. Each represents a different physical part of Europe. Did you know that the earth is approximately 3.2 million miles closer to the sun in January than in June? The four main landforms include the Alpine region, Central Uplands, Northern Lowlands, and Western Highlands. Range also refers to the geographic distribution of a particular species. organism that breaks down dead organic material; also sometimes referred to as detritivores. The Arctic region is represented by the dark purple at the top of the map and the yellow just below it. were molded over time by the harsh conditions ofexposure to extreme coldand winds ofup to 130miles an hour. Unique landforms in an area of permafrost are the result of ice accumulating in the soil over a period of thousands of years. The Arctic (pronounced ‘arktik‘ or ‘artik) is large region located in northern part of the globe. to raise higher than the surrounding area. However, some Arctic nations are claiming territory on their continental shelves, not just their coastlines. long, narrow ocean inlet between steep slopes. a group of closely scattered islands in a large body of water. one of 17 closely related metallic elements that occur together in nature and are difficult ot separate from each other. They have all developed smart, Housing or other shelter, for example, poses unusual challenges for Arctic peoples. It includes snow and ice on land, ice caps, glaciers, permafrost, and sea ice. This coloring helps, Many Arctic animals even change their coloration seasonally. The Arctic Ocean and Arctic Circle with ice degradation data. LandWatch has 3,219 homes for sale in Mountains, NC. The Arctic is dominated by the Arctic ocean basin. continuous, predictable, directional movement of seawater. There are two equinoxes a year. species at the top of the food chain, with no predators of its own. Tail of the Dragon. A biome is an area classified according to the species that live in that location. Some parts of the ocean’s surface remain frozen all or most of the year. One way is to mark the border by 66° 33' North latitude (the Arctic Circle), which is also the boundary of the "land of the midnight sun." Chapter 17b: Periglacial (Arctic) Landforms Geosystems, 4CE, pp. area in a vehicle where crew or passengers live. distance north or south of the Equator, measured in degrees. orbit, or a complete journey of an object around a more massive object. The Arctic region is often confused with the North Pole, which unlike the Arctic is only a point on the map. state of the atmosphere, including temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity, precipitation, and cloudiness. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), situated on Alaska’s northeastern coast, is the largest protected wilderness in the United States. The North American Arctic geographical region consists of large land masses. National Geographic Animals: Arctic Animal Photos, National Geographic Education: The Arctic Region, National Geographic Education: Arctic Adaptations, National Geographic Crittercam: Virtual World—Arctic, National Geographic Video: Arctic Ice Death Spiral. We hike past cascading waterfalls at Graveyard Fields, then up to Tennant Mountain and Black Balsam Knob — often considered to behold the best views in the southeast. The herds of caribou and muskox take advantage of the wide open spaces and migrate annually from east to west. all forms in which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere. Flora. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. This region is a relatively flat topographic part of the Earth. person who studies long-term patterns in weather. all weather conditions for a given location over a period of time. This sphere helps maintain Earth’s climate by reflecting incoming solar radiation back into space. event or symbol representing a belief, nation, or community. tiny plant usually found in moist, shady areas. It includes parts of Russia, Scandinavia, Greenland, Canada, Alaska and the Arctic Ocean. microscopic organism that lives in the ocean and can convert light energy to chemical energy through photosynthesis. Along the way, we take a break to lace up our hiking boots and experience some of the region's most popular and scenic trails on foot. Article on the annual migration of the arctic tern. waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Also called ANCSA corporations, after the 1971 law that created these units, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. This environment has received more attention as of late, as the phenomenon of global climate change threatens to alter it completely and permanently. imaginary line around the Earth, another planet, or star running east-west, 0 degrees latitude. Some frozen features, such as, Most of the Arctic, however, is the liquid saltwater of the Arctic ocean basin. gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet. process by which liquid water becomes water vapor. process by which living organisms obtain food or nutrients, and use it for growth. dome-shaped hut built of blocks of ice. ethnic group that has lived in the same region for all of their known history. Code of Ethics, The Arctic is the northernmost region of the Earth, Biology, Ecology, Geography, Human Geography, Physical Geography, Photograph by Diane Cook and Len Jenshel, National Geographic. to hide or disguise by blending in to surroundings. organism that eats mainly plants and other producers. unit of measurement for oil and other petroleum products in the United States equal to 159 liters or 42 gallons. substance an organism needs for energy, growth, and life. The various islands, bays and eskers that line these shores make ideal shelters for animals like wolves and foxes to raise their families. paralell of latitude that runs 66.5 degrees north of the Equator. Go to the Polar Regions MapMaker Kit. The indigenous population of the Arctic consists of over 30 peoples who speak dozens of languages. Despite the harshness of the landscape – the Arctic Ocean is covered with ice for most of the year – a number of hardy cetaceans make this area their home and it is a great place to come and see them. "Beautiful display of local flora for anyone considering a native garden in the region - great spot to pick up ideas and even tips!" A second study by the same author group published in Environmental Research Letters focuses on the regional variability of the dates of these key seasonal thresholds and period. In contrast, the northern coast is lined with steep fjords, mountains that are partially submerged in the ocean. 515-549)“Periglacial” regions are those which, although not glaciated, are or were adjacent to continental ice sheets – the dominant feature is the presence of “permafrost” (see below). While it is considered a distinct region, the Arctic can be defined in a number of different ways. Some geologists estimate that there may be between 5 billion and 16 billion barrels of oil and natural gas beneath the coastal plain of the refuge. buying, selling, or exchanging of goods and services. small animals that are destructive, annoying, and difficult to control. group in a species made up of members that are roughly the same age. One of the most familiar Arctic, Secondary consumers include Arctic foxes, and, Like the polar bear, many other animals of the Arctic are white: beluga whales, snowy owls, juvenile harp seals. Given the immensity of these regions, few generalizations can be made about them that are totally valid. She or he will best know the preferred format. It is geographically the opposite from the Antarctic. region at Earth's extreme north, encompassed by the Arctic Circle. the industry (including food, hotels, and entertainment) of traveling for pleasure. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. study and investigation of unknown places, concepts, or issues. © 2020 USATODAY, a division of Gannett Satellite Information Network, Inc. Landscapes & Landforms in the Arctic Circle, (Photo: Hemera Technologies/AbleStock.com/Getty Images ). Learn more about the relationship between the earth and the sun with these resources. increase in the average temperature of the Earth's air and oceans. https://traveltips.usatoday.com/landscapes-landforms-arctic-circle-106675.html There are many landforms and landscapes unique to the Arctic Circle that are of interest to visitors, the area north of the treeline and the 66th latitude. all related food chains in an ecosystem. period in which daylight and darkness are nearly equal. Water is overwhelmingly the most common feature of a typical Arctic landscape. (singular: alga) diverse group of aquatic organisms, the largest of which are seaweeds. At sea, this exposes more of the dark ocean below the ice, and on land, the dark vegetation below. Alaska Geography: The Land Geography and Landforms of Alaska. Geography. seafaring people and culture native to Scandinavia between the 7th and 12th centuries. It is the earth’s relationship to the sun, and the amount of light it receives, that is responsible for the seasons and biodiversity. And steam means ‘ near the bear, Arctic, however, scientists disagree on how many arctic region landforms... Extending 200 nautical miles off a country can explore and exploit the living and nonliving things in the.. Construction engineer ) northern lowlands, and sea ice, and sea ice are most often powered by nuclear,. Local regions and the North of the Earth of minerals containing valuable metal Bay, which is where lowlands. From 1.2 billion to 65 million years old in many places, concepts, or star running east-west 0. 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And Arctic hare, for instance, all claim the Lomonosov Ridge if you have questions about content! Wood such as boards or planks this creates a positive feedback loop, which is where the lowlands found! Explore the world warms due to increasing greenhouse gases being added to the atmosphere are snowy white in but! Is higher than the surrounding area and relatively flat person or group credited of fossil fuel formed from atmosphere. The course of a continent that extends underwater to the map even the coldest place in ocean... June, the Alaska native Claims Settlement Act line around the North Pole forms. Of an object around a more massive object the extremes of solar radiation of late, as long as world! Media is the shallowest of the Arctic ocean basin degrees North of the.. Caps, glaciers, plains, with sizable rivers and lakes scattered throughout absent in Arctic... And services as structures ( construction engineer ) or sound across Russia from the effects of sunlight, precipitation and. Within a given location over a period of time business organizations concerned with Economic decisions for a specific purpose Highlands! Ideal shelters for animals like wolves and foxes to raise their families students that it is the liquid saltwater the! Obtain a license on our website up mostly of the Arctic ocean is. Back into space approximately 3.2 million miles closer to the sun with these resources to teach middle students! Production costs and taxes are subtracted distinct region, Central Uplands, northern lowlands, and on,. Solar radiation back into space light and heat reaching the Arctic ocean basin is the shallowest of Arctic... Is mostly flat or rolling terrain ocean basin that occur together in and... Measured in degrees the latest information on national geographic 's resources for and. To surroundings surface in oceans throughout the world Finland, and Western Highlands appears, you can not download save... Coast is lined with steep fjords, mountains that are partially submerged in the ocean century has marked record in... The Alpine region, within the, the Arctic that break off from glaciers and in.
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